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Announcing
Client version 9.7.2 is now available. To read about the list of enhancements this client includes, please review the client´s version history at http://www.corp.att.com/agnc/windows/documentation/versionhistory.pdf.
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Glossary Glossary
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
Wi-Fi is an abbreviation for Wireless Fidelity and is the popular term for a wireless LAN specified by the IEEE 802.11b standard. Wi-Fi technology operates in the 2.4 GHz range and connects at speeds up to 11 Mbps. Wi-Fi has become a popular option to wirelessly connect to the Internet in coffee shops, airports, and other public areas. Wi-Fi has also been adopted in many small offices and homes as a means to connect to the Internet without the need for wire tethering the user to a telephone, cable or Ethernet outlet.

Hotspot (Wi-Fi)
A hotspot is a location from which Wi-Fi access can be obtained. Locations such as coffee shops, airports, restaurants, and other public areas are beginning to make Wi-Fi available as a service to their customers or constituents. In making Wi-Fi available to their customers, a proprietor makes their location a hotspot.

Ethernet
The most popular type of local area network, which sends its communications through radio frequency signals carried by a coaxial cable. Each computer checks to see if another computer is transmitting and waits its turn to transmit. If two computers accidentally transmit at the same time and their messages collide, they wait and send again in turn. Software protocols used by Ethernet systems vary, but include Novell Netware and TCP/IP.

Extranet
The part of a company or organization´s internal computer network which is available to outside users, for example, information services for customers.

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A high-speed, low-delay, high-bandwidth switched network (similar to Frame Relay). Uses fixed sized cells.

ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A high-speed transmission technology that uses existing analog phone lines. Employs a much higher data rate downstream than upstream. Compare with HDSL, IDSL, RADSL, SDSL, VDSL, and xDSL.

EDI
Electronic Data Interchange. The transfer of data beween different companies using networks, such as the Internet.

DNS
Domain Name System. You may have seen it before in an error message when your browser could not find a website. The DNS name (such as www.cnn.com) is a simpler way of reaching a Web site than using the IP address.

Database
A collection of data arranged for ease and speed of search and retrieval.

Domain Name
A user-friendly, easy-to-remember name (or address) of a computer on the Internet. It is mapped to the computer´s less user-friendly numeric IP address, which is expressed as four numbers separated by periods. For example, the computer´s IP address might be 198.04.41.52; but the domain name could be mycompany.com. Both are unique; the translation is done through the Domain Name System (DNS), which is a distributed database.

CPE
Customer Premises Equipment. Equipment that is connected to the telecommunications network and is owned or leased by the customer.

CGI
Common Gateway Interface. A standard for running external programs from a Web server. CGI specifies how to pass arguements to the executing program as part of the HTTP request. The program will usually generate HTML which will be passed back to the browser. It can also request URL redirection.

Browser
A software application used to connect to the area of the Internet known as the World Wide Web. Microsoft Explorer and Netscape Navigator are two of the most popular browsers.

Broadband
Network technology that allows the transmission of multiple independent channels of data. A broadband transmission shares the bandwidth of a medium such as standard copper wire phone lines or fiber optic cable to carry more than one signal. Broadband cables are used in some office LANs.

Baud
The number of bits of information that are transmitted each second.

DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network. In some systems, the device´s IP address can even change while it is still connected. DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses.

Crack
To break into a computer system or to copy commercial software illegally by breaking the various copy-protection and registration techniques being used.

Cookies
These small files keep a log of where people click, allowing sites to track visitors´ habits. Cookies are placed on visitors´ computers when they visit sites or use things like shopping carts, web-based mail programs, personalized weather, or calendars. They can also be used solely for tracking preferences and are usually harmless.

Computer
A programmable machine. A computer responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions.

CO
Central Office. The physical building that houses the telephone switches and is the termination point for telephone/data circuits for a neighborhood; owned by a LEC.

CLEC
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier. Subsequent to the deregulation of the telecommunications industry, traditional telephone companies (for example, the Regional Bell Operating Companies RBOCS) are referred to as ILECs (incumbent LECs); new telephone companies are referred to as CLECs. See LEC.

DMZ
Demilitarized Zone. Used by a company that wants to host its own Internet services without sacrificing unauthorized access to its private network. The DMZ sits between the Internet and an internal network´s line of defense.

Digital
In electronics, a signal coded in binary format as opposed to analog´s continuously variable flow. All digital information is ultimately stored in yes/no signals that computers can process. Compare with analog.

DSL
Digital Subscriber Line. An access technology that uses a standard copper telephone line along with special equipment at the user´s location and at the local telephone company´s Central Office to enable high-speed, "always on" Internet access.

ELEC
Enterprise Local Exchange Carrier. A subset of CLECs (competitive LECs). A large corporation or organization (for example, a university) that operates its own local exchange carrier (LEC). See LEC.

Bandwidth
The size or the capacity of a given transmission communications path or medium. Calculated as the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies that can be transmitted without significant distortion.

Analog
In electronics, a signal that is continuously variable, a flowing line or wave, as opposed to yes/no, left/right digital signals. Analog signals have to be translated into digital signals before they can be processed by a computer. Compare with digital.

Address
Either 1) an individual´s e-mail address, or 2) an organization´s address on the Internet and World Wide Web. Usually indicated by an uninterrupted series of numbers and/or letters, punctuated by periods, slashes, and @ symbols.

User Group
A group of individuals who share a common interest in a computer related topic. Commonly abbrieviated as XUG. For instance, a Cold Fusion User Group would be referred to as CFUG. Sub-groups within user groups are referred to as SIGs (special interest groups).

Privacy Seal
A graphical display on a Web site which shows that the site has disclosed their personal information collection and privacy practices in a straightforward privacy statement, generally a link from the home page. Sites that display this seal promise that they are working with third party organizations. The Web site must undergo careful scrutiny and pay a licensing fee.

WINS
Windows Internet Naming Service. A system that determines the IP address associated with a particular network computer. This is called name resolution. WINS supports network client and server computers running Windows and can provide name resolution for other computers with special arrangements.

JavaScript
A simple and easy to learn, cross-platform Web scripting language developed by Netscape Communications.

Hacker
A slang term for a computer enthusiast. Depending on the context in which it is used, this label can imply the person is an amateur or a programmer who lacks formal training or that the person is an advanced programmer who uses their skills to "hack" into computer systems they do not own. Can be either complimentary or derogatory.

HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A protocol used to request and transmit files, especially Web pages and Web page components, over the Internet or other computer networks.

Personally Identifiable Information
Your name, address, or credit card number and other details linked to your identity.

FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions. A document that answers questions, generally of a technical nature. Pronounced as separate letters or as fak.

HDSL
High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. The oldest of the DSL technologies. Still used by telephone companies deploying T1 lines at 1.5 Mbps. Requires two twisted-pair phone wires. Compare with HDSL, IDSL, RADSL, SDSL, VDSL, and xDSL.

Privacy Policy
A notice posted on a Web site to disclose how a company collects, uses, and shares data with partners, affiliates, or advertisers. The Privacy Policy should always be easy to understand and have a prominent place throughout the site.

Online Profiling
By using cookies, sometimes with personal information, sites construct profiles about what customers do or don´t buy, what they look at, how much time they spend in different areas, what site they most recently visited, and what ads they click on.

GSM
Global System for Mobile communications. GSM is used all over Europe, plus many countries in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, South America, Australia, and North America. GSM´s air interface is based on narrowband TDMA technology, where available frequency bands are divided into time slots, with each user having access to one time slot at regular intervals.

Referers
Information that your web browser passes along when you move from one site to the next, use a search engine, or send e-mail. This usually includes such information as the browser version you are using, such as Netscape 6. Referers can be collected for advertising purposes.

IRC
Internet Relay Chat. Worldwide real-time conferencing on the Internet, reached by Telnetting to an IRC server.There are hundreds of IRC channels for many different subjects, from many countries. There are purely social chat rooms, and channels dedicated to more serious purposes.

Router
A device in a network that handles message transfer between computers.

GSM-direct
GSM-direct is an extenstion of AT&T´s Remote Access Services. By using a direct digital connection between AT&T´s dial-up nodes and selected GSM operators´cellular networks, users experience much faster set-up times and better call quality than provided via standard ´transit´ call switching.

Registration
This is found anywhere you fill out personal information in order to download software, sign up for a free service, or buy something online. Most fields are usually optional. A valid e-mail address is almost always required. The data may be sold or shared with other Web sites or advertisers. Some sites allow users to opt-in or opt-out.

RBOC
Regional Bell Operating Company. The RBOCs were split from the old AT&T/Bell System as a result of the divestiture of AT&T at the end of 1983.

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network. A technology that allows large quantities of digital data to be transmitted over specially-conditioned telephone lines. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) provides two communications paths, each capable of carrying up to 64 Kbps for audio or data. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) provides 24 pathways capable of carrying 64 Kbps each.

SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The protocol used to transmit e-mail messages between servers. It is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server.

Third-Party Database
A company that gathers information such as name, address, phone numbers, and income on many households around the world.

Operating System
Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. The most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, Windows, and Linux.

Modem
Acronym for modulator-demodulator. A device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines.

Netiquette
A contraction of Internet etiquette. The rules and guidelines, largely unwritten, that should be followed when posting or sending messages via newsgroups, e-mail or other online venues.

Newbie
A slang term for a new user of an online service or to the Internet in general.

Subnet
A portion of a network that shares a common address component. On TCP/IP networks, subnets are defined as all devices whose IP address have the same prefix. For example, all devices with IP addresses that start with 100.100.100. would be part of the same subnet.

SOHO
Small Office/Home Office. An industry standard term and acronym that refers to this particular segment of users, which is steadily expanding due to increases in telecommuting and entrepreneurship.

Opt-in and Opt-out
Some sites allow their visitors to have choices for how their information is being used. In opt-out situations, the site is free to gather and sell information on you unless you specifically tell it not to. With opt-in, the site will not gather information unless you give your consent.

TCP/IP
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) on top of the Internet Protocol (IP). These protocols were developed by DARPA to enable communication between different types of computers and computer networks. The Internet Protocol is a connectionless protocol which provides packet routing. TCP is connection-oriented and provides reliable communication and multiplexing.

Network
A group of two or more computer systems linked together.

Spam
Unsolicited commercial e-mail sent indiscriminately to multiple mailing lists, individuals, or newsgroups.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. A protocol for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data that´s transferred over the SSL connection. Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, Web pages that require an SSL connection start with "https:" instead of "http:".

LAN
Local Area Network. A network that connects computers that are close to each other, usually in the same building, linked by a cable.

GPRS
Short for General Packet Radio Service, a standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 115 kilobits per second, compared with current GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) systems´ 9.6 kilobits. GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data.

SDSL
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A high-speed transmission technology that uses existing analog phone lines to transmit and receive digital data. It is "even" in that the speed is the same in both directions (upload and download). Compare with HDSL, IDSL, RADSL, VDSL, and xDSL.

RADSL
Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line. Using modified ADSL software, RADSL enables a modem to automatically and dynamically adjust its transmission speeds. This results in good data transmission rates for customers located greater distances from the local telephone company´s Central Office than acceptable for other DSL types, for example, ADSL (asymmetric DSL). This is not currently available through AT&T Business Internet Services. Compare with HDSL, IDSL, SDSL, VDSL, and xDSL.

ILEC
Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier. A local telephone company that traditionally had the right and responsibility to provide local transmission and switching services. Could be a Bell Operating Company (BOC) or an independent company. Subsequent to deregulation, these companies are known as ILECs (incumbent LECs).

Protocol
1.Often simply referred to as a protocol, a communications protocol is a set of rules or standard designed so that computers can exchange information with a minimum of errors. See also Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI). 2. Layer 3 of the OSI networking model, which handles data routing and addressing.

Web page
A document on the World Wide Web, usually consisting of an HTML or similar type of file and any related files for scripts and graphics, and often hyperlinked to other Web pages.

GUI
Graphical User Interface. An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing a pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and activates graphical images on a monitor.

Web
Short for World Wide Web.

Gateway
Software or hardware that enables communication between computer networks that use different communications protocols.

ISDL
ISDN Digital Subscriber Line. A version of DSL that provides up to 144 Kbps transmission rates in each direction and can be provisioned on any phone line that is provisioned with ISDN. IDSL can be deployed to users who, for example, are located at much further distances from the telephone company Central Offices than ADSL and other DSL technologies. Compare with HDSL, RADSL, SDSL, VDSL, and xDSL.

VDSL
Very high-rate Digital Subscriber Line. On of the newest of the DSL technologies. Offers speeds up to 25 Mbps downstream and 3 Mbps upstream. However, like SDSL, the gain in speed can be achieved only at short distances (up to only 1,000 feet). Sometimes referred to as BDSL (broadband DSL). This is not currently available through AT&T Business Internet Services. Compare with HDSL, IDSL, RADSL, SDSL, and xDSL.

IP Spoofing
Internet Protocol spoofing. A technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted port.

WAN
Wide Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area.

Kbps
Kilobits per second, that is, thousands of bits per second. Used to describe the speed of a network connection. For instance, today´s fastest dial modem operates at 56 Kbps over an analog telephone line. Compare with Mbps.

Mbps
Megabits per second, that is, millions of bits per second. Used to describe the speed of a network connection. Many LANs operate at speeds of 10 Mbps or more; a T-1 line WAN connection operates at 1.544 Mbps, and high-end DSL operates at 1.5 Mbps. Compare with Kbps.

IP Address
Every Web site has an IP address, which is an identifier for a computer or device connected to the Internet. The format of an IP address is a numeric address represented by four numbers separated by periods. The numbers can be from zero to 255. For example, 2.75.123.12 could be an IP address.

URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) The address that defines the route to a file on the Web or any other Internet facility. URLs are typed into the browser to access Web pages, and URLs are embedded within the pages themselves to provide the hypertext links to other pages.The URL contains the protocol prefix, port number, domain name, subdirectory names and file name. Port addresses are generally defaults and are rarely specified. To access a home page on a Web site, only the protocol and domain name are required.

ISP
Internet Service Provider. A company that provides Internet access and accounts.

LEC
Local Exchange Carrier. Subsequent to deregulation of the telecommunications industry, companies that traditionally had the exclusive right and responsibility to provide local telephone transmission and switching services (for example, the RBOCs-Regional Bell Operating Companies that were split off from the old AT&T/Bell System) were joined by new companies that are free to offer comparable services. The traditional telephone companies became known as "ILECs" (incumbent LECs), while new, independent telecommunication services companies became known as "CLECS" (competitive LECs). "ELECs" (enterprise LECs), a subset of CLECs, are formed by larger corporations or organizations (for example, a university) that operate as the entity´s own LEC. "LEC" is the umbrella term used to encompass all three: ILEC, CLEC, and ELEC.

Local Loop
A loop formed by a pair of wires (the phone line) between the telephone company´s local Central Office and the user premises. This loop provides access to the global telecommunications infrastructure. Originally designed to provide voice communication, this pair of wires can now provide high-speed data access using DSL technology.

Upstream
Refers to the data transmission going from your location to the local telephone company Central Office (CO). In asymmetric DSL, the speed of the upstream transmission is much lower than in the other direction (downstream) - from the CO to your site. In symmetric DSL, upstream and downstream speeds are the same.

Internet
An electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world.

Intranet
A network operating like the World Wide Web but having access restricted to a limited group of authorized users (as employees of a company).

Hyperlink
A cross-reference in an electronic document that, when activated, causes the application reading the document to load a different section of the document, a new document, or a resource that the application can display or use. Also: link.

PING
Packet Internet Groper. A utility used to determine whether a specific IP address is currently accessible. The utility works by sending a packet to the IP address and waiting for a reply.

GPF
Global Protection Fault. The processor in your machine, 486 or Pentium, can detect when a program does something seriously wrong. This could be caused by an error in your code or in Windows.

POP3
POP3 is the latest version of "Post Office Protocol," a protocol that is used to retrieve your e-mail messages from a mail server. It is generally used to transfer messages from a mail server to a mail client.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol. The process by which computer files are transferred from one computer system to another. Commonly used to transfer files from a personal computer to a Web server or vice versa.

xDSL
An umbrella term used to refer to the family of DSL technologies. See HDSL, IDSL, RADSL, SDSL, and VDSL.

Java
A trademark used for a programming language designed to develop applications, especially ones for the Internet, that can operate on different platforms.

POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service, that is, your regular (analog) phone line.

HTML
HTML stands for hyper-text markup language and is the language in which web pages are constructed.

PDA
Personal Digital Assistant. A pocket-sized personal computer.

World Wide Web
An Internet client-based server hypertext distributed information retrievel system, publicly introduced in 1991. Popularly referred to as the "Web." The most visible aspect of the Web is the millions of Web pages built by educational institutions, corporations, small businesses and consumers containing hyperlinked documents of information.


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